All basic concepts of chemistry.

.All basic concepts of chemistry. 

 * Father of Chemistry
Ans : Robert Boyle
* The author of the book 'Sceptical Chymist' is
Ans : Robert Boyle
* Father of Modern Chemistry
 Ans : Antoine Lavoisier
* Father of Indian Chemistry
Ans : P.C.Roy
 * Father of Organic Chemistry
Ans : Friedrich Wohler
* Ancient Chemistry is known as
Ans : Alchemy
 * Ancient Chemists were known as
Ans : Alchemists
 * The scientist known as the father of Sodapop
Ans : Joseph Priestly
* International year of chemistry
Ans : 2011
 *New methods used in chemistry which aim to reduce pollution are called
 Ans : Green Chemistry
 *The term Green Chemistry was coined by
 Ans : Paul.T.Anastas

 There are seven stable physical states
 1) Solid
 2) Liquid
 3) Gas
 4) Plasma
 5) Bose- Einstein condensate (Super atom)
 6) Fermionic condensate
 7) Super Fluidity

 * The concept dual nature of Matter was put forward by
 Ans : Louis de-Broglie
 * The construction of electron microscope was based on
Ans : Dual Nature of Matter
* The dual nature of electrons was
 Ans : I.H.Germer

 *Basic unit of Chemistry
 Ans : Atom
 *Smallest units of a matter
 Ans : Atom
 *Atom was derived from a greek word
 Ans : 'Atomos' (means indivisible)
 *Atom was discovered by
 Ans : John Dalton
 *Law of Multiple Proportion was put forward by
 Ans : John Dalton
 *The term 'atom' was coined by
 Ans : Ostwald
 *The fundamental particles of an atom
 Ans : Proton, Electron and Neutron
 *The central part of an atom
 Ans : Nucleus
 *The sub atomic particles of Nucleus
 Ans : Protons and Neutrons
 *Heaviest sub atomic particle
 Ans : Neutron
 *Lightest sub atomic particle
 Ans : Electron
 *Moving particle of an atom
Ans : Electron
 *The charge of an electron is
Ans : Negative
 *Protons and Neutrons are collectively known as
 Ans : Nucleons
 *Chemical property of a substance is determined by
 Ans : Electrons
 *The smallest atom
 Ans : Helium (He)
 *The simplest atom
 Ans : Hydrogen (H)
 *Biggest known atom
 Ans : Francium (Fr)
 *The unit of measuring mass of an atom
Ans : Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
 *1 atomic mass unit is equal to
Ans : 1.6605 xlO’27 Kg
*The element used to find amu
Ans : Carbon-12

 *Electron is discovered by
Ans : JJ.Thomson
 *The name Electron was proposed by
 Ans : Stoney
 *Charge of an electron
 Ans : 1.6 x 10-19C (determined by Millikan)
 *Mass of electron
 Ans : 9.1 x 10_31kg
*Dual nature of electron
Ans : Louis-de-broglie

 *Proton was discovered by
 Ans : Ernest Rutherford
 *The identity card of an element
 Ans : Proton
 *The mass of a proton is
 Ans : 1.672 x 10^-27 kg
 *The theory of Proton was presented by
 Ans : William Prout

 *Neutron was discovered by
 Ans : James Chadwick in 1932
 *The heaviest fundamental particle of an atom
 Ans : Neutron
 *The least stable particle
 Ans : Neutron
 *Neutrons are bound very tightly
 *Chargeless particle of an atom
 Ans : Neutron
 *The atom without neutron
 Ans : Protium (Isotope of Hydrogen)
 *Atomic number - It is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom
 *Atomic number is denoted by the alphabet
Ans : Z
 *Mass number - The total number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom
 *Mass number is denoted by
Ans : A
 *Anti particle of the neutron with the same mass of neutron
 Ans : Anti neutron
 *Anti particle of the proton with the same mass of proton
 Ans : Anti proton
 *Nuclear particle with the mass of an electron but opposite charge
 Ans : Positron
 *Atomic Theory
 Ans : John Dalton
*Uncertainty Principle
 Ans : Werner Heisenberg
*Structure of Atom
Ans : Niels Bohr
*Plum Pudding Model
Ans : J.J. Thomson
*Wave Mechanics Model
Ans : Max Planck
*Electron (-ve charge)
 Ans : J.J. Thomson
*Proton (ve charge)
 Ans : Ernest Rutherford
*Neutron (No charge)
 Ans : James Chadwick
*Nucleus (ve charge)
 Ans : Ernest Rutherford
*Positron (ve charge)
 Ans : Carl Anderson
*Antineutron (No charge)
 Ans : Bruce Cork
*The combining capacity of one atom to another
 Ans : Valency
 *Atom is bigger than its nucleus
Ans : 10^5 times
 *Electrons move in a circular path called
Ans : Orbit
 *The maximum number of elements in an orbit is
Ans : 2
 *The orbit followed by a moving electrons around the nucleus of an atom
Ans : Shell
 *The maximum number of electrons in a shell
 Ans : 2n2 (n = Number of shell)

 *Smallest particle of a substance having all its properties
 Ans : Molecule
 *The term molecule was coined by
Ans : Avogadro
 *The number of molecules obtained in 1 mole of gas is called
 Ans : Avogadro Number
*Avagadro Number
 Ans : 6.023 xl023/mol
*International mole day
Ans : October 23
*The bricks of Universe
Ans : Molecules
 *The SI Unit of the amount of substance
Ans : Mole
 *A molecule made up of only one kind of atom is called
 Ans : Monoatomic molecule
 *A molecule made up of two kinds of atom is called
 Ans : Diatomic molecule

 *Substance which is composed of similar kind of atoms is called
 Ans : Elements
 *The scientist who proved that the elements are made up of atoms
 Ans : John Dalton
 *The term 'elements' was coined by
 Ans : Robert Boyle
 *The first scientist who gave a definition to element is
 Ans : Robert Boyle
 *The scientist who gave symbols for elements on the basis of their names
 Ans : JohnJ.Berzelius
 *The scientist who classified elements into Metals and Non-metals
 Ans : Lavoisier
 *Elements are classified into
 Ans : Metals, non-metals and metalloids
 *Metals: Elements that conduct electricity and heat which tends to lose electrons
 *Non-Metals : Elements that do not conduct electricity and heat which tends to accept electrons.
 *Metalloids: Elements showing properties of both metals and non-metals
 *The international association which gives names of elements
 Ans : International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)
 *The headquarters of IUPAC
 Ans : Zurich (Switzerland)
 *The most abundant element in the universe
 Ans : Hydrogen
 *The second most abundant element in the universe
 Ans : Helium
 *The only radio active element in liquid form
 Ans : Francium
 *The only radio active element in gaseous form
 Ans : Radon
 *The most electro positive stable element
Ans : Cesium

 *The combination of two or more elements is called
 Ans : Compounds
 *The separation of a compound into its elements by chemical means is called
 Ans : Analysis
 *The formation of a compound by the union of elements is called
 Ans : Synthesis
 Examples: Water, Steam, Salt etc.
 *The recently discovered chemical compound for the treatment of cancer
 Ans : Cisplatin
 *The element which forms largest number of compounds
 Ans : Carbon
 *The second element which forms largest number of compounds
 Ans : Hydrogen

 *Silver Iodide
 Ans : For artificial rain
 Ans : Preservation of dead bodies
*Sodium citrate
 Ans : Anti coagulant in blood bank
 *Sodium Benzoate
 Ans : For preservation of grains and food
 *Silver Bromide
 Ans : Manufacturing of photo films
 Ans : Used in refrigerator as coolant
*Sodium Peroxide
 Ans : Air purifier in submarines
*Carbon dioxide
 Ans : Used in Fire extinguisher

 *Two or more substances (elements or compounds or both) that do not combine chemically during the mixing
Ans : Mixtures
 *The two kinds of mixtures are :
 Ans : Heterogeneous mixture and Homogeneous mixture
*Heterogeneous mixture
 Ans : Having more than one phase
Eg: Concrete, Wood
*Homogeneous mixture
 Ans : Having same proportions of its compounds through out a given sample. Two or more components are so evenly distributed in Homogeneous mixture
 Eg: Quartz, Glass, Air

 *A mixture of two faces of the matter is called
 Ans : Colloid
 Eg : Emulsion, Aerosols, Fog, Milk
*A colloidal solution formed between two liquids is called
Ans : Emulsion
 *A colloid formed between gas particles and liquid or solid particles
Ans : Foam
 *Colloid which contains particles of liquid or solid dispersed in gas
Ans : Aerosol

 *Atoms of the same element having same atomic number and different mass number are known as
 Ans : Isotopes
 *Isotope was discovered by
Ans : Frederick Soddy

 *Carbon 14
 Ans : Used to determine the age of fossils
 *Cobalt 60
 Ans : Used for the treatment of cancer
*Phosphorous 32
 Ans : Used for the treatment of skin cancer
 *Oxygen 15, Iodine - 131
Ans : Used as medicine
 *Isotopes differ in the number of
Ans : Neutrons
 *The isotopes of hydrogen are
 Ans : Protium, Deuterium, Tritium

 *Elements having same mass number and different atomic number are known as
Ans : Isobars
 Eg : Calcium - 40 (20 Ca^40), Argon - 40 (18Ar^40)
 *The term Isobars was suggested by
Ans : Alfred Walter Stewart

 *Atoms of elements- having same number of neutrons are called
Ans : Isotones
 eg : Helium (2He^4) and Tritium (1H^3) (both contain 2 neutrons)
 *The term Isotones was formed by
Ans : K.Guggenheimer

 *Compounds with same molecular formula but different structures are known as
 Ans : Isomers
 Eg: Glucose (C^6H^12O^6),Fructose (C^6H^12O^6)

 *Different forms of the same element with different physical appearances are known as
 Ans : Allotropes
 Eg: Diamond, Graphite and Charcoal
 are the allotropes of Carbon
 *The allotrope of Oxygen
 Ans : Ozone

 *An arrangement of elements with similar properties placed together is called
 Ans : Periodic Table
 *Mendeleev's periodic table was based on
 Ans : increasing order of atomic mass
 *Moseley's periodic table was based on the
 Ans : atomic number of elements
 *The modern periodic table is based on
 Ans : atomic number
 *Modern periodic table contains
 Ans : 7 horizontal rows and 18 vertical columns
 *The periodic table was discovered by
 Ans : Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev
 *Modern periodic table was discovered by
 Ans : Henry Moseley
 *Periodic laws were put forward by
 Ans : Mendeleev
 *Modern periodic laws were put forward by
 Ans : Moseley
 *The scientist who classified elements based on Atomic Values is
 Ans : Lothar Meyer
 *The rows are called
 Ans : Periods
 *Columns are called
 Ans : Groups
 *The left side of the periodic table denotes
 Ans : Metals
 *The right side of the periodic table denotes
 Ans : Non-metals

 *Hydrogen - Henry Cavendish
 *Oxygen - Joseph Priestly
 *Selenium - Berzelius
 *Thorium - Berzelius
 *Calcium - Humphry Davy
 *Sodium - Humphry Davy
 *Potassium - Humphry Davy
 *Boron - Humphry Davy
 *Barium - Humphry Davy
 *Uranium - Martin Klaproth
 *Radium - Madam Curie
 *Nitrogen - Daniel Rutherford
 *Fluorine - Henri Moissan
 *Iodine - Bernard Courtois
 *Chlorine - Carl Wilhelm Scheele
 *BHC - Michael Faraday
 *Methane - Alexander Volta
 *Titanium - William Gregor
*Aluminium - Hans Orsted
 *Nitrous Oxide - Joseph Priestly
 *DDT - Paul Muller

 *Most abundant element on earth's crust - Oxygen
 *Most abundant metal in earth's crust - Aluminium
 *Most abundant metalloid in earth's crust - Silicon
 *Most abundant element in atmosphere - Nitrogen
 *Most abundant element in the universe - Hydrogen
 *Most abundant element in human body - Oxygen
 *Most abundant gas in atmosphere - Nitrogen
 *Most abundant element in sea water - Chlorine
 *Most abundant element in moon's surface - Titanium
 *Most abundant metal present in human body and bones - Calcium
 *Most abundant metal compound in bones - Calcium phosphate
 *Most abundant compound on earth's surface - Water (H2O)
 *Most abundant compound in sea water - Sodium Chloride
 *Second most abundant compound in sea water - Magnesium Chloride
 *Most chemically reactive element - Fluorine
 *Second most chemically reactive element - Chlorine
 *The lightest and simplest element - Hydrogen
 *The lightest metal - Lithium
 *The rarest element in the earth - Astatine
 *The heaviest element - Osmium
 *The heaviest gaseous element - Radon
 *First man made element - Technetium
 *Most stable element - Lead
 *The periodic table is divided into 4 main blocks
 *S block - elements of group 1 and 2
 *P block - elements of group 13 to 18
 *D block - elements of group 3 to 12
 *F block - Lanthanides and Actinides
*The shortest period of the periodic table
 Ans : First period
 *The longest period of the periodic table
Ans : Sixth period
 *Elements with atomic number 57-71 are known as
 Ans : Lanthanides (rare earths)
*Elements with atomic number 89-103 are known as
 Ans : Actinides (radio active rare earths)
*Total number of elements in periodic table
Ans : 118
 *The number of naturally occurring elements
 Ans : 92

 *1st group -Alkali metals
 *2nd group- Alkaline earth metals
*3-12 group -Transition elements
*13thgroup -Boron family
 *14thgroup -Carbon family
 *15thgroup - Nitrogen family
*16thgroup - Oxygen family
 *17thgroup - Halogen
*18thgroup - Noble gas
 *The first artificial element
 Ans : Technetium (Z = 43)
 *Man made elements are known as
 Ans : Transuranics

 Features Top to bottom Left to right
 *Atomic size increases decreases
 *Ionization Energy decreases increases
*Electron affinity decreases increases
*Ionization potential decreases increases

 *Metals and non-metals
Ans : Lavoisier
 Ans : Dobereiner
 *Law of octaves
 Ans : John Newland
 *Based on atomic weight
Ans : Mendeleev
 *Based on atomic number
Ans : Moseley
 *Element present in 1,2 and 13-18 groups are known as
 Ans : Representative elements
*All transitive elements are
Ans : Metals
 *Transitive elements form
 Ans : Coloured compounds

 *Name of earth - Tellurium (52)
 *Name of Moon - Selenium (34)
 *Name of Sun - Helium (2)
 *Name of Asteroid - Palladium (46)
*Honour of women - Curium (96), Meitnerium (109)
 *Name of Ceres - Cerium(58)
 *Name of Uranus - Uranium (92)
 *Name of Neptune - Neptunium (93)
 *Name of Pluto - Plutonium (94)

 *The liquid metal at room temperature
Ans : Mercury
 *The liquid non-metal at room temperature
Ans : Bromine
 *Two elements which are liquids at room temperature
 Ans : Bromine, Mercury

 *The ability of an atom to accept the electrons during molecular bond formulation is known as
 Ans : Electro negativity
 *Electronegativity was discovered by
 Ans : Linus Pauling
 *Electronegativity scale was invented by
 Ans : Linus Pauling
 *The element which has most electronegativity
 Ans : Fluorine
 *The elements which have least electronegativity
 Ans : Francium, Caesium

 *The metal used in atomic clocks
 *The metal which shows least expansion
 *Most electro positive stable element
 *Element having least electro negativity

 *Iron Fe Ferrum
 *Gold Au Aurum
 *Silver Ag Argentum
 *Copper Cu Cuprum
 *Antimony Sb Stibium
 *Mercury Hg Hydrargyrum
 *Sodium Na Natrium
 *Tungsten W Wolfram
 *Tin Sn Stannum
 *Potassium K Kalium
 *Lead Pb Plumbum

 113 Nihonium Nh
 115 Moscovium Mc
 117 Tennessine Ts
 118 Oganesson Og

 *Two types of reactions are
 Ans : Physical and Chemical reactions

 *A reaction in which no new substance is produced is called
 Ans : Physical reaction It can be reversed
 eg : Freezing, Melting


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